(Jl. Dinoyo 19b, lantai 3)
Jum’at, tgl 3 Juli 2009, pk 19.00
Pdt. Budi Asali, M. Div.
(HP: 7064-1331 / 6050-1331)
KJV: ‘(14) And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou [art] cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: (15) And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel’ [= (14) Dan TUHAN Allah berkata kepada ular itu: ‘Karena engkau telah melakukan ini, engkau terkutuk lebih dari semua ternak, dan lebih dari setiap binatang di padang; pada perutmu engkau akan pergi / berjalan, dan debu akan engkau makan seluruh hidupmu: (15) Dan Aku akan mengadakan permusuhan antara engkau dan perempuan ini, dan antara benihmu / keturunanmu dan benihnya / keturunannya; itu akan mememarkan kepalamu, dan engkau akan mememarkan tumitnya].
d) “keturunannya akan meremukkan kepalamu, dan engkau akan meremukkan tumitnya.’”.
1. Latar belakang penggambaran ini.
Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: “The leading idea is founded on the habit of the insidious serpent to bite its victim in the heel or behind, and that of mankind striking or dashing at a serpent’s head with a club. The same verb is used to describe the attack upon the head and the heel, to show that destruction is aimed at in both. But though the bite of a serpent on the heel of a man, when the poison infects the blood, is dangerous, it is not incurable. The crushing of the serpent’s head, however, is destruction” (= ).
2. Kata ‘keturunannya’ di sini, seharusnya adalah ‘he’ [= dia (laki-laki)], dan secara khusus menunjuk kepada Yesus Kristus.
Ay 15b: “keturunannya akan meremukkan kepalamu, dan engkau akan meremukkan tumitnya.’”.
KJV: ‘it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel’ (= ).
Terjemahan KJV ini salah; kata ‘it’ seharusnya adalah ‘he’, seperti dalam terjemahan RSV.
RSV: ‘he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his
Tentang kata-kata ‘it shall bruise thy head’ Clarke, dan juga banyak penafsir lain, mengatakan bahwa terjemahan yang benar bukanlah ‘it’ tetapi ‘he’, dan Clarke menganggap ini menunjuk kepada Yesus Kristus. Ini bisa saya terima. Clarke lalu melanjutkan dengan menekankan kata ‘her’ dalam kata-kata ‘her seed’, dan menganggap bahwa Yesus hanya diturunkan dari perempuan (Maria), bukan dari laki-laki. Clarke melanjutkan dengan mengatakan bahwa pada saat kematian Yesus, setan menghancurkan tumitNya, dan Ia menghancurkan kepala setan.
Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: “The seed of the woman who was to bruise the serpent’s head is connected with a singular verb and pronoun, and, denoting therefore an individual, points to Christ personally in a special and emphatic sense” (= ).
Barnes’ Notes: “the
retributive character of the divine administration is remarkably illustrated in
the phrase. The serpent, in a wily but dastardly spirit, makes the weaker sex
the object of his attack. It is the seed of the woman especially that is to
bruise his head” (= ).
Keil & Delitzsch: “Christ is the seed of the woman, who tramples Satan under His feet, not as an individual, but as the head both of the posterity of the woman which kept the promise and maintained the conflict with the old serpent before His advent, and also of all those who are gathered out of all nations, are united to Him by faith, and formed into one body of which He is the head (Rom 16:20). ... If then the promise culminates in Christ, the fact that the victory over the serpent is promised to the posterity of the woman, not of the man, acquires this deeper significance, that as it was through the woman that the craft of the devil brought sin and death into the world, so it is also through the woman that the grace of God will give to the fallen human race the conqueror of sin, of death, and of the devil. And even if the words had reference first of all to the fact that the woman had been led astray by the serpent, yet in the fact that the destroyer of the serpent was born of a woman (without a human father) they were fulfilled in a way which showed that the promise must have proceeded from that Being, who secured its fulfilment not only in its essential force, but even in its apparently casual form” (= ).
Pulpit Commentary: “Thy head. I.e. the superior part of thee (Calvin), meaning that the serpent would be completely destroyed, the head of the reptile being that part of its body in which a wound was most dangerous, and which the creature itself instinctively protects; or the import of the expression may be, He shall attack thee in a bold and manly way (T. Lewis). ‘And thou shalt bruise his heel.’ I.e. the inferior part (Calvin), implying that in the conflict he would be wounded, but not destroyed; or ‘the biting of the heel may denote the mean, insidious character of the devil’s warfare’ (T. Lewis)” (= ).
3. Kapan kemenangan ini terjadi?
Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: “In Him the prophecy attained its highest fulfillment: He is the representative of the whole race, as well as the source of all the life and energy by which the Church bruises the serpent’s head; and by His death on the cross, when His ‘heel’ - i.e., His humanity - was laid low, He successfully encountered Satan in a manner that excludes all idea of any participator either in His sufferings or His triumphs” (= ).
The Bible Exposition Commentary: Old Testament:
cross, Satan ‘bruised’ Christ’s heel; but because of His death and
resurrection, Christ crushed Satan’s head and won a complete victory over him
(Eph 1:17-23; Col 2:14-15)” (= ).
4. Ini tidak berarti Gereja / orang-orang percaya tidak perlu ikut berperang. Juga janji kemenangan Kristus ini berlaku untuk Gereja / orang-orang percaya.
Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: “But although the prophecy does unquestionably refer to Christ’s personal conflict with Satan, and His victory over him as its culminating point, yet the Church - which is the spiritual body of which He is the Head - must also, in its ideal unity, be viewed as embraced in this prophetic intimation, which finds its accomplishment in all the conflicts of God’s people with the powers of darkness - whether the conflicts of the Church universal, of particular branches of it, or of private believers, issuing in their final triumph at that day when, ‘Satan being completely and forever bruised under their feet,’” (= ).
Pengaruh kata-kata Tuhan ini terhadap setan dan manusia.
1) Kepada setan.
Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: “To Satan it must have been a bitter disappointment, since it put a sudden termination to the fiendish glee with which he was doubtless exulting over the success of his recent plot, and held out an awful prospect, not only of greater degradation punishment to himself, but of a death-blow to his empire of darkness. He probably could not penetrate the deep mystery of the prediction; but he must have understood enough of it to perceive that it portended some fatal catastrophe to himself; and that, in the course of time, the mischief he had done would be made subservient to his own eternal infamy, and to the most glorious display of the divine character” (= ).
Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: “The significant expression, ‘bruising the serpent’s head,’ implied that his malignant designs against them would be frustrated by the destruction of his power. For, first, as he thought, by seducing the first pair, to have brought on their death, and so have made an end of the whole species, God promises that the woman should live to have seed. Secondly, since he seduced the woman under the specious pretense of friendship, while he intended her ruin, a war is now declared against the Devil and his party, which should end in the overthrow of them and their devices. And, thirdly, since the Devil thought, by drawing them into sin, and under the wrath of God, to bring them into misery, and deprive them of the happiness that they were made for, God declares the Devil’s policy should be defeated by the seed of the woman, in which is implied a positive promise that mankind, though by the envy and malice of Satan become sinful, should receive through the seed of the woman the forgiveness of sins and a restoration to their forfeited possession, with all the peace and felicity resulting from the favour of God (Burnet’s ‘Boyle Lectures’)” (= ).
2) Kepada manusia.
Hal-hal positif yang lain yang harus diperhatikan oleh manusia.
a) Pernyataan hukuman terhadap manusia diberikan setelah pemberian keyakinan kemenangan atas setan.
Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: “Sentence upon the man and the woman was deferred until after they had been assured of victory over their enemy, when they were both informed of circumstances of deterioration that were to take place in their respective conditions” (= ).
b) Permusuhan dengan setan adalah persahabatan dengan Allah.
Barnes’ Notes: “A
second thing, however, was still more striking to the mind of man in the
sentence of the serpent; namely, the enmity that was to be put between the
serpent and the woman. ... When God, therefore, said, ‘I will put enmity
between thee and the woman,’ this revulsion of feeling on her part, in which
Adam no doubt joined, was acknowledged and approved. Enmity with the enemy of God indicated a return to friendship with God,
and presupposed incipient feelings of repentance toward him, and reviving
confidence in his word. The perpetuation of this enmity is here
affirmed, in regard not only to the woman, but to her seed. This prospect of
seed, and of a godly seed, at enmity with evil, became a fountain of hope to our
first parents, and confirmed every feeling of returning reverence for God which
was beginning to spring up in their breast” (= ).
c) Pada saat ini Tuhan bicara kepada ular demi manusia, karena kalau tidak, apa gunanya Tuhan bicara kepada seekor ular? Lalu apa gunanya untuk manusia?
1. Supaya mereka sadar betapa bencinya Allah terhadap dosa.
2. Supaya mereka mendapat penghiburan dalam penderitaan mereka, karena terlihat bahwa Allah masih propitious terhadap mereka.
3. Allah menjanjikan kemenangan manusia atas setan, karena pada waktu bicara kepada / tentang ular, Allah terutama menujukan hal itu kepada setan. Ini mempunyai 2 tujuan:
a. Supaya manusia sadar bahwa setan adalah musuh besar mereka.
b. Supaya dalam perang melawan setan, mereka yakin bahwa mereka akan menang.
The Biblical Illustrator (Old Testament): “Ver. 15. I will put enmity between thee and the woman. - The believer’s conflict with Satan: - I. THAT THERE IS A CONTINUAL CONFLICT BETWEEN SATAN AND EVERY BELIEVER IN JESUS CHRIST, WHOM HE REPRESENTED IN THE FIRST PROMISE, ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE AND GRACE OF ALMIGHTY GOD. ... although the conflict may be fierce, and long, and stubborn, we are not permitted to doubt on which side the victory will fall. Hence I would observe, thirdly, THE ASSURANCE OF TRIUMPH GIVEN IN THE TEXT TO THE SEED OF THE WOMAN - THE BELIEVING MEMBERS OF CHRIST” (= ).
Calvin: “God here
chiefly assails Satan under the name of the serpent, and hurls against him the
lightning of his judgment. This he does for a twofold reason: first, that men
may learn to beware of Satan as of a most deadly enemy; then, that they may
contend against him with the assured confidence of victory”
Barnes’ Notes: “It
is singular to find that this simple phrase, coming in naturally and
incidentally in a sentence uttered four thousand years, and penned at least
fifteen hundred years, before the Christian era, describes exactly and literally
Him who was made of woman without the intervention of man, that He might destroy
the works of the devil. This clause in the sentence of the tempter is
the first dawn of hope for the human family after the fall”
Wycliffe: “Thus, we have in this famous passage, called the protevangelium, ‘first gospel,’ the announcement of a prolonged struggle, perpetual antagonism, wounds on both sides, and eventual victory for the seed of woman. God’s promise that the head of the serpent was to be crushed pointed forward to the coming of Messiah and guaranteed victory. This assurance fell upon the ears of God’s earliest creatures as a blessed hope of redemption” (= ).
Jamieson, Fausset & Brown:
to the fallen pair, is the design of this prophecy is more obvious, so the
effects of it are more easily traced. It was calculated in no ordinary degree to
relieve and support their deeply agitated and desponding minds. It announced, in
terms very figurative and enigmatical indeed, but still intelligible, that their
Creator, though grievously offended by their disobedience, cherished purposes
of mercy toward them. It gave them a strong and certain assurance that
the sin which had unhappily entered into the world through their means, and the
evils that flowed from it, would not continue forever. ...
the drift of the sentence pronounced upon the serpent in the hearing of
the fallen pair was exceedingly seasonable to them, and well calculated to
afford them present comfort as well as future hope”
The Bible Exposition Commentary: Old Testament:
words to Satan (v. 15) are called the protevangelium, ‘the first Gospel,’
because this is the first announcement of the coming Redeemer found in the
Bible. To God’s Old Covenant people, this verse was a beacon of hope (Gal
4:1-4); to Satan, it was God’s declaration of war, climaxing in his
condemnation (Rom 16:20); and to Eve, it was the assurance that she was forgiven
and that God would use a woman to bring the Redeemer into the world (1 Tim